The Cathars: The Most Successful Heresy of the Middle Ages
The Crusade was the first to be directed against fellow Christians, and was also the first European genocide. With the fall of the Cathar fortress of Monts gur in , Catharism was largely obliterated, although the faith survived into the early 14th century. Today, the mystique surrounding the Cathars is as strong as ever, and Sean Martin recounts their story and the myths associated with them in this lively and gripping book.
No current Talk conversations about this book. A good, and easy to read, introduction to the Cathar heresy and suppression by the French and Italian inquisitions. This short book explains the origins of the Cathar movement of medieval Languedoc, Italy and the Balkans, placing it in the context of different theological approaches that had grown up in preceding centuries in both eastern and western European Christianity.
You must log in to edit Common Knowledge data. Information from the Serbian Common Knowledge. Edit to localize it to your language. Arnaud Amaury Arnold Amaury. Arnold of Brescia. Peter Autier. William Autier. Basil the Physician. Jacob Bech. Bernard of Clairvaux. Arnold Catalan. Peter Clergue. Alexius Comnenus. Conrad of Marburg. Constantine the Great. Geoffrey d'Ablis.
Gentille d'Ascou. Hugh de Lusignon.
Guilhem de Minerve. Amaury de Montfort. Simon de Montfort. Antonio Di Galosna. Romano di San Angelo. James Fournier. Folquet de Marseille Fulk of Marseilles. Peter Garcias. Pope Gregory IX. Bernard Gui. Arthur Guirdham.
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Henry III of England. Henry of Lausanne. Henry II of Seyn. Hugh of Arcis. Pope Innocent III. John Judeus.
Paul, the Apostle, of Tarsus "Saul". Peter II of Aragon. Peter of Castelnau. Peter of Florence. Peter Roger of Mirepoix. William Peyre. William Prunel. Armanno Pungilupo. Otto Rahn. Raymond VI of Toulouse. Raymond VII of Toulouse.
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Robert of Bulgaria. Roger Bernard of Foix. Arnold Sicre. Prades Tavernier. Oliver Termes. Raymond Trencavel. Raymond Roger Trencavel. Wolfram von Eschenbach. Languedoc, France. The few isolated successes of Bernard of Clairvaux could not obscure the poor results of this mission, which clearly showed the power of the sect in the Languedoc at that period.
The missions of Cardinal Peter of St. Chrysogonus to Toulouse and the Toulousain in , and of Henry, cardinal-bishop of Albano, in —, obtained only momentary successes. Henry of Albano's armed expedition, which took the stronghold at Lavaur, did not extinguish the movement. Decisions of Catholic Church councils against the Cathars at this period—in particular, those of the Council of Tours and of the Third Council of the Lateran —had scarcely more effect. At first, Innocent tried pacific conversion, and sent a number of legates into the affected regions.
They had to contend not only with the Cathars, the nobles who protected them, and the people who venerated them, but also with many of the bishops of the region, who resented the considerable authority that the Pope had conferred upon the legates. In , Innocent III suspended the authority of a number of bishops in the south of France; in , he appointed a new and vigorous bishop of Toulouse, the former troubadour Foulques. Saint Dominic met and debated the Cathars in , during his mission to the Languedoc. He concluded that only preachers who displayed real sanctity, humility, and asceticism could win over convinced Cathar believers.
His conviction led eventually to the establishment of the Dominican Order in The order was to live up to the terms of his famous rebuke, "Zeal must be met by zeal, humility by humility, false sanctity by real sanctity, preaching falsehood by preaching truth. Dominic managed only few converts, and in the end told them, "In my country we have a saying, 'where blessing can accomplish nothing, blows may avail.
Known for excommunicating noblemen who protected the Cathars, Pierre de Castelnau excommunicated Raymond as an abettor of heresy. Castelnau was immediately murdered near Saint Gilles Abbey on his way back to Rome by a knight in the service of Count Raymond. As soon as he heard of the murder, the Pope ordered the legates to preach a Crusade against the Cathars. Having failed in his effort to peacefully demonstrate the perceived errors of Catharism, the Pope then called a formal crusade, appointing a series of leaders to head the assault.
Twenty years of war followed against the Cathars and their allies in the Languedoc: The Albigensian Crusade. This war threw the whole of the nobility of the north of France against that of the south. The wide northern support for the Crusade was possibly inspired by a papal decree stating that all land owned by the Cathars and their defenders could be confiscated. As the Languedoc was teeming with Cathars and their sympathizers, this made the territory a target for French nobles looking to gain new lands. The barons of the north headed south to do battle.
The Roman Catholic inhabitants of the city were granted the freedom to leave unharmed, but most refused and opted to fight alongside the Cathars. The Cathars attempted a sortie but were quickly defeated, and the pursuing knights chased them back through the open gates of the city. Arnaud, the Cistercian abbot-commander, is supposed to have been asked how to tell Cathar from Roman Catholic. His famous reply, recalled by a fellow Cistercian, was "Caedite eos.
Reportedly, 7, people died there, including many women and children.
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Elsewhere in the town, many more thousands were mutilated and killed. Prisoners were blinded, dragged behind horses, and used for target practice. What remained of the city was razed by fire. Arnaud wrote to Pope Innocent III , "Today your Holiness, twenty thousand heretics were put to the sword, regardless of rank, age, or sex.
It was after the success of the siege of Carcassonne, which followed the massacre at Beziers, that Simon de Montfort was appointed to lead the Crusader army. Prominent opponents of the Crusaders were Raymond-Roger de Trencavel, viscount of Carcassonne, and his feudal overlord Peter II, the king of Aragon, who owned fiefdoms and had other vassals in the area.
Peter died fighting against the crusade on September 12, , at the Battle of Muret. The independence of the princes of the Languedoc was at an end. However, in spite of the wholesale massacre of Cathars during the war, Catharism was not yet extinguished. One of the key goals of the council was to combat the heresy of the Cathars by rejecting the Cathar's interpretation of the Doctrine of the Resurrection as meaning "reincarnation. The Inquisition was established in , to uproot the remaining Cathars.
Operating in the south at Toulouse, Albi, Carcassonne and other towns during the whole of the thirteenth century, and a great part of the fourteenth, it finally succeeded in extirpating the movement. Cathars who refused to recant were sent to the galleys, hanged, or burned at the stake.
On March 16, , a large and symbolically important massacre took place, where over Cathar prefects were burned in an enormous fire at the prat des cramats near the foot of the castle. Moreover, the Church decreed chastisements against laymen suspected of sympathy with Cathars Council of Narbonne, Hunted by the Inquisition and deserted by the nobles of their districts, the Cathars became more and more scattered: Meeting surreptitiously in forests and mountain wilds.
However, by this time the Inquisition had grown very powerful. Consequently, many were summoned to appear before it. The parfaits only rarely recanted, and hundreds were burned.
Repentant lay believers were punished, but their lives were spared as long as they did not relapse. Having recanted, they were obliged to sew yellow crosses onto their outdoor clothing. After decades of not only severe persecution, but perhaps even more importantly the complete destruction of their writings, the sect was exhausted and could find no more adepts.
By , the records of the Inquisition contain very few proceedings against Cathars. Other movements, such as the Waldensians and the pantheistic Brethren of the Free Spirit, which suffered persecution in the same area survived in remote districts in small numbers into the fourteenth and fifteenth century. Waldensian ideas were absorbed into early Protestant and Anabaptist sects, such as the Hussites , Lollards , and the Moravian Church Herrnhutters of Germany.
It is possible that Cathar ideas were too. Cathars in general formed an anti-sacerdotal party in opposition to the Catholic Church, protesting what they perceived to be the moral, spiritual, and political corruption of the papacy. They claimed an Apostolic Connection to the early founders of Christianity and saw Rome as having betrayed and corrupted the original purity of the message. The Cathars claimed that there existed within humankind a spark of divine light. This light, or spirit, had fallen into captivity within a realm of corruption—identified with the physical body and world.
This was a distinct feature of classical Gnosticism , of Manichaeism and of the theology of the Bogomils. This concept of the human condition within Catharism was most probably due to direct and indirect historical influences from these older and sometimes also violently suppressed Gnostic movements.
According to the Cathars, the world had been created by a lesser deity, much like the figure known in classical Gnostic myth as the Demiurge. This creative force was identified with the Old Testament God and seen as the "False God," though he claimed for himself the title of the "one and only God.
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Thus, the Cathars believed that the Old Testament God of Jews and Christians was an impostor, and worship of this God was a corrupt abomination infused by the failings of the material realm. Spirit—the vital essence of humanity—was thus trapped in a polluted world created by a usurper God and ruled by his corrupt minions. The goal of Cathar eschatology was liberation from the realm of limitation and corruption identified with material existence. The path to liberation first required an awakening to the intrinsic corruption of the medieval "consensus reality," including its ecclesiastical, dogmatic, and social structures.
Once cognizant of the grim existential reality of human existence the "prison" of matter , the path to spiritual liberation became obvious: matter's enslaving bonds must be broken. This was a step by step process, accomplished in different measures by each individual. The Cathars clearly accepted the idea of reincarnation. Those who were unable to achieve liberation during their current mortal journey would be reborn again on earth to continue the struggle for perfection. For the Cathars like the Hindus and Buddhists , it should be understood that reincarnation was neither a necessary nor a desirable event, but a result of the fact that not all humans could break the enthralling chains of matter within a single lifetime.
Cathar society was divided into two general categories, the Perfecti Perfects, Parfaits and the Credentes Believers. The Perfecti were the core of the movement, though the actual number of Perfecti in Cathar society was always relatively small, numbering perhaps a few thousand at any one time. Regardless of their number, they represented the perpetuating heart of the Cathar tradition, the "true Christian Church," as they styled themselves.evemcili.cf
An individual entered into the community of Perfecti through a ritual known as the consolamentum, a rite that was both sacramental and sacerdotal in nature: Sacramental in that it granted redemption and liberation from this world; sacerdotal in that those who had received this rite functioned in some ways as the Cathar clergy—though the idea of priesthood was explicitly rejected. The consolamentum was the baptism of the Holy Spirit , baptismal regeneration, absolution , and ordination all in one. Upon reception of the consolamentum, the new Perfectus surrendered his or her worldly goods to the community, vested himself in a simple black robe with cord belt, and undertook a life dedicated to following the example of Christ and His Apostles—an often peripatetic life devoted to purity, prayer, preaching, and charitable work.
The demands of extreme asceticism fell only upon the Perfecti. Above all, the Perfecti were dedicated to enabling others find the road that led from the dark land ruled by the dark lord, to the realm of light, which they believed to be humankind's first source and ultimate end. While the Perfecti vowed themselves to ascetic lives of simplicity, frugality and purity, Cathar credentes believers were not expected to adopt the same stringent lifestyle.